A ministry statement said two rockets landed outside the airport, while the third hit a house in the Al-Jihad neighborhood, west of Baghdad.
No casualties were reported in the overnight attacks.
There was no claim of responsibility for the rocket attacks, according to Anadolu Agency.
The Baghdad airport, which also houses a US military base, has been targeted by several rocket attacks in the past.
On Thursday, at least 32 people were killed in twin suicide bombings claimed by the Daesh (ISIL or ISIS) terrorist group in Baghdad.